CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS (STROKES) ARE DIVIDED INTO 2 MAJOR CATEGORIES:

ISCHAEMIC CVA

1

HAEMORRHAGIC CVA

2

ISCHAEMIC

CEREBROVASULAR ACCIDENTS

ABOUT

A significant disruption caused by an ischaemic CVA is the interruption of the blood flow in a smaller or larger area of the brain, depending on the affected vessel.

A transient ischaemic attack (TIA) only lasts a few hours because the body is able to treat the damage itself, therefore the symptoms subside. a TIA is NOT HARMLESS.

It may be a warning sign for a future cardiovascular accident, so its causes should be investigated in detail. The majority of strokes fall under this category.

SYMPTOMS

An Ischaemic CVA manifests by the sudden appearance of one or more of the following symptoms:

CAUSES

THE CAUSE BEHIND AN ISCHAEMIC CVA

may be one or more of the following:

TREATMENT

Thrombolysis

The medication is administered intravenously with the purpose of dissolving the blood clot and restoring blood flow in the blocked vessel. This type of treatment is effective if the medication is administered within three hours from the attack. If the blood clot is too large, however, it is less effective, therefore a different approach is recommended.

Thrombectomy

This is a minimally invasive procedure carried out by neuroradiologists. The blood clot is reached through the femoral artery so that it can be removed from the vessel lumen and that blood flow be restored. This is achieved either by a mechanical thrombectomy or by thromboaspiration via a dedicated catheter. Both methods are safe, although the best chance for a successful medical intervention is for it to occur within 6 to 8 hours.

HAEMORRHAGIC

CEREBROVASULAR ACCIDENTS

ABOUT

Haemorrhagic CVAs are caused by a vessel rupturing and bleeding into the brain tissue. This type of stroke is less common and usually has a worse prognosis.

Intracerebral haemorrhage

That is, bleeding within the brain parenchyma.

Α

Intraventricular haemorrhage

That is, bleeding within the brain's ventricles. Intraventricular haemorrhage may cause obstructive hydrocephalus, which is often life-threatening.

B

Subarachnoid haemorrhage

That is, bleeding in the space between the brain and the membranes covering it. The most common causes for this type of haemorrhage are the rupture of a brain aneurism or the rupture of an arteriovenous malformation. Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage accounts for 3% of all cardiovascular accidents.

C

Spontaneous subdural haematoma

This is a rare type of spontaneous haemorrhage. Usually the result of traumatic brain injury.

D

SYMPTOMS

A Haemorrhagic CVA may manifest through one or more of the following symptoms:

CAUSES

THE CAUSE BEHIND A HAEMORRHAGIC CVA

may be one or more of the following:

• Hypertension
• Vascular dysplasia & brain aneurism
• Deterioration of the vessels due to age and/or other conditions (e.g. diabetes)

TREATMENT

PREVENTION

CAN I PREVENT A STROKE?

The answer is "Yes", as long as you follow a healthy lifestyle, which includes:

REHABILITATION

It is important to be aware that rehabilitation is not the same for everyone - some patients will show significant improvement, while others may continue having issues; it depends on the location and size of the CVA.

The human brain possesses mechanisms which allow it to learn new ways to function by using the brain cells that remain intact.

Depending on the extent of the CVA, rehabilitation may involve:

Motor skill treatments

...such as re-learning how to walk and muscle strengthening.

Cognitive & emotional skill treatments

...such as restoring communication, speech, writing, and comprehension skills and psychological evaluations for signs of depression.
In any case, rehabilitation may last from a few months to several years after the stroke.
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